Why do Catholics call Mother Mary "Queen of Heaven and Earth"?

Some Evangelicals have problems with this "Queen" thing. Perhaps the best way to explain it is to compare Heaven to the Commonwealth. We live in a time when there is no king. We grew up singing "God save the Queen." So it is natural that our contemporary understanding of the word Queen would be someone in highest authority. However, when there is a king, the queen has absolutely no authority whatsoever except the quiet whisper in the king's ear to influence a decision. (Jn 2:3)

JESUS IS KING, which means that Mary has no authority whatsoever over his decisions except a whisper in his ear (Jn 2:3). This doesn't diminish the King's (Jesus') authority in the least. It reinforces it. What respectable King does not have a Queen?  Revelation 11:12 says:

12 :1 A great portent appeared in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars. 2 She was pregnant and was crying out in birth pangs, in the agony of giving birth. Then the dragon stood before the woman who was about to bear a child, so that he might devour her child as soon as it was born. 5 And she gave birth to a son, a male child, who is to rule all the nations with a rod of iron. But her child was snatched away and taken to God and to his throne..

Jesus only had one Mother and this passage is talking about the woman that gave birth to the Saviour. She has a Crown. The passage also clearly shows Mary as an active participant in the war against the devil. The passage presents Jesus on his rightful throne.

In the Old Testament the Queen was often not the wife of the King, but the mother

In the Old Covenant a King could have many wives but would only have one mother. Unlike the English commonwealth, in the ancient Middle East, the King's mom was often the Queen. It was a very specific role.

The idea of the Queen Mother was ubiquitous [all over the place]... you don't find ancient monarchies in the Near East or the Middle East that don't have a Queen Mother... [the Queen Mother] was one of the best-known institutions in ancient Israel's monarchy, or after the Civil War, ancient Judah's monarchy..." (Dr. Scott Han, "Mary, Holy Mother", 16)

The Hebrew word is "gebiran" meaning "great lady" which Mary most certainly was. There are references in the Old Testament to the Queen Mother. (1 Kings 15:13)

Then King Jehoiakim, along with his advisers, nobles, and officials, and the queen mother, surrendered to the Babylonians." (2 Kings 24:12)

She had a throne in a place of honour in the royal court, seated next to the King

She was reverenced and honoured uniquely by the King, she interceded to the King on behalf of his subjects, and the King honours her requests, and she had a role to play in worship, not as a priest, but definitely a role. (ibid Scott Hahn 16)

Why do we believe Mary is the Woman crowned with 12 stars, the New Ark of the Covenant in Rev 11:18-12:17?

Ark of the Old Testament Fulfillment - Mary, the Ark of the New Covenant
There I have set the ark in which is the [old] covenant of the Lord that he made with his people Israel (2 Ch 6:11) Elizabeth's spouse, Zachariah says "He has remembered his holy covenant" (Lk 1:72) "the new covenant in my blood" (Lk 22:20)
The Word was written by God on Tablets of  Stone (Ex 25:10) placed inside the Ark (Deut 10:1) The Word of God became Flesh (John 1) conceived inside Mary (Lk 2:38) Mary carried the Word of God.
[The New Covenant] will not be like the covenant that... they broke though I was their husband (Jer 31:31) The Holy Spirit (God) is Mary's spouse (Lk 1:35)
"Who am I that the Ark of my Lord should come to me?"  (2 Sam 6:9) "Who am I that the mother of my Lord should come to me" (Lk 1:43)
When the Ark carrying the Word of God returned "Hugh was leaping and dancing before the Lord" (2 Sam 6:14) When Mary came into Elizabeth's presence carrying the word of God, the baby leaped for joy in Elizabeth's womb (Lk 2 38)
The Ark carrying the Word of God is brought to the house of Obed-Edom for 3 months, where it was a blessing. (2 Sam 6:11) Mary (the new Ark) carrying the Word of God goes to Elizabeth's house for 3 months, where she is a blessing (Lk 1:56)
The Ark is captured (1 Sam 4:11) and brought to a foreign land and later returns (1 Sam 6:13) Mary (the new Ark) is exiled to a foreign land (Egypt) and later returns (Mat 2:14)
The Ark of the Old Covenant disappears  (Jer 3:16) never to return The Ark of the New Covenant appears as Mary (Rev 11:19)
The Ark was in God's Temple on earth (Ex. 30:26) Mary, the Ark of the New Covenant is in God's temple in Heaven (Rev 11:19)
Joshua summoned the twelve men carrying 12 stones representing the tribes of Israel. "Pass on before the ark of the Lord your God." (Josh 4:3-5) The Ark of the New Covenant, Mary with a crown of twelve stars representing the tribes of Israel. (Rev 12 :1, 11:19)
The Israelites circle Jericho with the Ark of the Covenant and blowing horns for seven days before their victory. (Joshua 6) The angels blow seven trumpets to herald the victory over Satan, (Rev. 8-11) before the introduction Mary, the Ark of the New Covenant (Rev. 12) which proceeds the final battle in Heaven.

We think God was quite clear about who the crowned woman was in the passage. It is not because of any power that she gets on her own, but by the power she is given by Jesus her Son. Just like the Israelites carrying the Ark of the Covenant into battle. Both the old Ark and the new Ark gain their merits because of the "Word of God" made stone in the Old Covenant and made flesh in the New Covenant. A chart comparing the Old Covenant Ark and the New Covenant Ark is here.

What Biblical precedent is there for Mary the Queen Mother, interceding?

So Bathsheba went to King Solomon, to speak to him on behalf of Adonijah. The king rose to meet her, and bowed down to her; then he sat on his throne, and had a throne brought for the king’s mother, and she sat on his right. Then she said, ‘I have one small request to make of you; do not refuse me.’ And the king said to her, ‘Make your request, my mother; for I will not refuse you.’ (1 Kgs 2:19-20)

We see this echoed in the New Testament, when Mary asks Jesus to make the water into wine, which he does. Even though he acted like he wouldn't.

On the third day there was a wedding at Cana ....When the wine ran out, the mother of Jesus said to him, "They have no wine."And Jesus said to her, "Woman, what does this have to do with me? My hour has not yet come."His mother said to the servants, "Do whatever he tells you." (2 Jn 1-5)

Jesus then changed the water into wine, at his mother's request.

Some say that the Queen Mother in the Book of Kings was not a good person, because of her actions. That is true. But that's typical of the Old Covenant. Virtually every character in the Bible had a defect. Adam is a sinner, yet he was precursor to Jesus, David committed murder and adultery, Noah got drunk and naked, Moses committed murder, Peter denied Jesus, and so on. We think it would be poor Biblical scholarship to discount the role of Queen Mother because she didn't uphold the dignity of her office in this passage of Scripture.

The Kingdom of David - fulfilled in Christ

The kingdom of David included a Queen Mother and this Kingdom would be fulfilled in Christ.

You have said, "I have made a covenant with my chosen one;
   I have sworn to David my servant:
'I will establish your offspring forever,
   and build your throne for all generations.'" (Ps. 89:3-4)

Psalm 2:9 says "with an iron rod you shall shepherd them. In the New Testament, the passage that introduces Mary as the Queen with 12 stars for a crown (Rev 12:1) describes her as "The woman" who brings forth a male child who will rule the nations with a rod of iron." (Rev 12:5)

All the faithful will be given crowns (1 Pt 5:4, Rev 2:10, 2 TIm 2:11-12, 2 Tim 4:7-8) How much more would Mary, his mother, receive the crown as Queen?

Invitation: Pray to Jesus about what he thinks of Mary

If you are afraid to talk to Mary, I invite you to Pray to Jesus about Mary. I'm sure any Evangelical would say it is perfectly safe to pray to Jesus about anything. Ask Jesus what's up with Mary. Give him time to respond. We pray you have the same experience that has led to our powerful convictions about the validity of Mary as a helper for the helpless, and a great prayer warrior. She is especially helpful to men who are struggling with chastity.

Sources: Martin Beckman
Fr. Terry Donahue,
J. Roy MacIntyre "My Soul Magnifies the Lord"
John Pacheco's refutation of Jame White's "Mary: Another Redeemer?"

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