Why do Catholics always talk about the Early Church Fathers (Apostolic Fathers)?
Let us take the analogy of a courtroom. When looking for witnesses, we want people who were closest to the action. They have a better perspective than those who are far removed. Catholics feel the Early Church fathers were good witnesses to the Christian faith. They understood Scripture the way Jesus and the disciples taught it.
Some of the criticisms of the Early Church Fathers is that they were only human and the Bible is divine so it is a better source. The Catholic Church agrees with this. Catholics believe that God used the hands of some of the early Church Fathers to write the Bible. The Early Church Fathers were only human but so were the early reformers in the 1500-1600s. They were over 1000 years before the reformers. Catholics feel that the Early Church Fathers had an excellent perspective about the meaning of Scripture because of their proximity to the events.
One of the criticisms of the Early Church Fathers is that they thought the world was flat and that the universe swirled around the earth. Actually that's not true. There was quite a bit of discussion among the Early Church Fathers. For example, Augustine described the earth as round. We should also note that most of the "reformers" such as Luther, Calvin, Wesley also rejected the "Copernican" system (a round world spinning around the sun). They interpreted scriptural references to the world being "immovable" to reject the idea that the world is spinning (i.e., 1 Chronicles 16:30, Psalm 93:1, Psalm 96:10, and Psalm 104:5). This glitch in the reformer's interpretation of Scripture also shows one of the problems with the principle of Sola Scriptura. Scripture needs to be interpreted and discerned in the context of humanity's maturity.
Some Evangelicals might say that the Bible is self-explanatory and needs no interpretation. My response would be that the Evangelical movement itself does not support that statement. There are presently dozens of conflicting interpretations of Bible passages by different Evangelical denominations and cell groups. (i.e., the Rapture) Everyone interprets Scripture the moment they pick it up. Sometimes the Holy Spirit reveals stuff to us as we study which is great. But almost all of the conflicting views among Evangelicals are claimed to be revealed by the Holy Spirit. If we believe that Truth is not relative then there is only one truth. Catholics think it's better that it is interpreted by the authority to which Jesus gave the authority (Mathew 16:18-19). The Catholic Church doesn't claim that it understands everything about Scripture. Rather, it says that what has been revealed and defined as Dogma is true. The Church is on a pilgrimage of faith and its understanding of the mystery of God is evolving. More about the Church's interpretation of Scripture here.
The Church Fathers believed in the real presence of Jesus in the Eucharist, honoured Mary, had elaborate ceremonies, prayed for the dead, respected the Church hierarchy, baptized babies, recognized Peter as the Rock, built the Church upon him with successors and followed a rich tradition of Christianity. That was the Christianity of the early days of Christianity and that is the Catholic Church of today. A timeline of the Catholic Church up to 500 A.D. is here
So in short Catholics feel the Early Church Fathers were kicking Christians who were plugged into the teachings of Christ and knew what the apostles were saying about the faith. The Church Fathers propagated the Church and helped bring it to the world. Catholics feel it is very useful to study what they taught and wrote about the interpretation of Scripture. It is also noteworthy that the Early Church Fathers practiced a very Catholic theology.
Apostolic Fathers are those before 200 A.D. and who were directly influenced or taught by the apostles. They include: Clement, Bishop of Rome (d. 97) and Catholics believe third successor to Peter as Pope; Ignatius (50-107), Polycarp (69-155), Justin Martyr (100-165), St. Irenaeus (130-202) and Cyprian (210-258). The Early Church Fathers lived between 200 and 800 A.D.
The following is a list of Christian Church Fathers. Catholics generally regard the Patristic period to have closed with the death of John of Damascus, in 749.
List of Church Fathers
The following is a list of Christian Church Fathers. Roman Catholics generally regard the Patristic period to have closed with the death of John of Damascus, a Doctor of the Church, in 749. However, Orthodox Christians believe that the Patristic period is ongoing. Therefore, the list is split into two tables.
Until John of Damascus
|Church Father||Date of death||Notes|
|Adrian the monk of Antioch||wrote a manual on the Antiochene method of Scriptural exegesis|
|Alexander of Alexandria||326|
|Alexander of Lycopolis||4th century|
|Ambrose of Milan||397||one of the Four Great Doctors of the Western Church; strongly opposed Arianism|
|Amphilochius of Iconium||403 or earlier|
|Ananias of Shirak||7th century||wrote a work on Christmas and one on Easter|
|Anastasius Sinaita||7th century|
|Andrew of Caesarea||6th century||commented on the Apocalypse|
|Andrew of Crete||8th century||author of the 250-strophe Great Canon|
|Anthony the Great||356|
|Aphraates||367||Mesopotamian bishop who authored 23 homilies|
|Apollinaris of Hirapolis||2nd century|
|Apollinaris of Laodicea||390|
|Apollonius of Ephesus||210|
|Archelaus||supposedly a bishop of Carchar who wrote against Manichaeism|
|Aristides the Athenian||134|
|Aristo of Pella||2nd century|
|Arnobius||330||author of Against the Heathen|
|Arsenius the Great||445|
|Apringius of Beja||6th century||commented on the Apocalypse|
|Asterius of Amasea||405||wrote sermons on morality including topics like divorce and covetousness, and the parables of Jesus Christ|
|Athanasius||373||one of the Four Great Doctors of the Eastern Church|
|Athenagoras of Athens||190||wrote in defense of the resurrection of the dead|
|Augustine of Hippo||430||one of the Four Great Doctors of the Western Church (Doctor Gratiae)|
|Aurelius Prudentius||early 5th century||commented on the Psalms|
|Avitus of Vienne||523||author of the five-book poem De spiritualis historiae gestis; converted King Sigismund; combated Arianism|
|Barsanuphius of Palestine||540|
|Basil the Great of Caesarea||379||one of the Four Great Doctors of the Eastern Church and one of the Three Holy Hierarchs; father of monachism|
|Bede||735||Doctor of the Church and author of Ecclesiastical History of the English People|
|Benedict of Nursia||547||best known for the Rule of St Benedict|
|Boethius||520s||author of Consolation of Philosophy|
|Braulio of Zaragoza||651||commented on the Psalms|
|Caesarius of Arles||542||commented on the Apocalypse|
|Chromatius||407||wrote sermons on the Gospel of Matthew|
|Clement of Alexandria||210s|
|Clement of Rome||099|
|Coelius Sedulius||5th century|
|Columba of Iona||597|
|Cyprian of Carthage||258|
|Cyril of Alexandria||444||Doctor of the Church (Doctor Incarnationis) combated the Nestorian heresy|
|Cyril of Jerusalem||386||Doctor of the Church who wrote thorough instructions to catechumens and baptized Christians|
|Pope Damasus I||384|
|Didymus the Blind||398||teacher of Jerome and Rufinus; follower of Origen; opponent of Arianism and the Macedonian heresy; works condemned at the Fifth Ecumenical Council and the Sixth Ecumenical Council|
|Diodore of Tarsus||390|
|Dionysius of Corinth||2nd century|
|Pope Dionysius of Rome||268||combated Sabellianism|
|Dionysius the Areopagite||1st century||Writings attributed to him are thought to have been faked by Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite.|
|Pope Dionysius the Great of Alexandria||265|
|Ephrem the Syrian||373||Doctor of the Church|
|Epiphanius of Salamis||403||friend of Jerome who strongly opposed Origenism and wrote a history of heresies|
|Eucherius of Lyon||449|
|Eusebius of Caesarea||339|
|Eusebius of Emesa||360||commented on Genesis|
|Eusebius of Vercelli||371|
|Fulgentius of Ruspe||6th century|
|Gaius Marius Victorinus||4th century||combated Arianism|
|Gennadius of Massilia||496|
|Pope Gregory I the Great||604||one of the Four Great Doctors of the Western Church and author of Dialogues|
|Gregory of Nazianzus||389||one of the Four Great Doctors of the Eastern Church; one of three Orthodox saints honored with the title "The Theologian;" one of the Three Holy Hierarchs|
|Gregory of Nyssa||394|
|Gregory of Tours||594|
|Hegesippus of Palestine||180||a Jewish convert who combated Gnosticism and Marcionism|
|Hesychius of Jerusalem||5th century|
|Hilary of Poitiers||367||Doctor of the Church|
|Hippolytus of Rome||235|
|Ignatius of Antioch||107|
|Irenaeus||end of 2nd or beginning of 3rd century|
|Isaac of Nineveh||700||ascetic author of many spiritual homilies who commented on the Psalms and contributed significantly to Syrian piety; was not Christologically Nestorian|
|Isidore of Pelusium||449||author of 2000 letters dealing primarily with allegorical exegesis|
|Isidore of Seville||636||Doctor of the Church|
|Jacob of Serugh||521||a.k.a. Mar Jacob|
|Jerome||420||one of the Four Great Doctors of the Western Church|
|John Chrysostom||407||one of the Four Great Doctors of the Eastern Church and one of the Three Holy Hierarchs|
|John of Damascus||749||Doctor of the Church and author of An Exact Exposition of the Orthodox Faith and ascetic and exegetical writings and hymns; Peter Lombard based his Four Books of Sentences on the works of John of Damascus and Thomas Aquinas based his Summa Theologica on Peter Lombard's Sentences|
|Julianus Pomerius||5th century||author of De Vita Contemplativa concerning Christian sanctity|
|Julius Firmicus Maternus||4th century|
|Pope Leo I the Great||461||Doctor of the Church|
|Leontius of Byzantium||543|
|Lucian of Antioch||312|
|Lucifer||370||combated Arianism and defended Athanasius at the Council of Milan in 354|
|Macarius of Alexandria||395|
|Macarius of Egypt||391|
|Malchion||3rd century?||played key role in the deposition of Paul of Samosata|
|Marcus Minucius Felix||250||author of Octavianus|
|Marius Mercator||451||made a compilation on Nestorianism and another on Pelagianism|
|Martin of Bruga||4th century||commented on the Psalms|
|Martin of Tours||397|
|Mathetes||2nd century?||author of an Epistle to Diognetus|
|Maximus of Turin||465|
|Maximus the Confessor||662|
|Meletius of Antioch||381|
|Melito of Sardis||180||author of an important sermon called On Pascha about the Resurrection of Jesus Christ|
|Methodius of Olympus||311||combated Origenism|
|Moses of Chorene||490||author of A History of Armenia|
|Nectarius of Constantinople||398|
|Nicetas of Remesiana||414||the patron saint of Romania commented on the Psalms|
|Nilus of Sinai||430|
|Novatian||258||commented on the Psalms|
|Oecumenius||6th century||author of the first extant Greek commentary on the Apocalypse|
|Optatus||4th century||combated Donatism|
|Origen of Alexandria||254||posthumously anathematized at Fifth Ecumenical Council (533)|
|Pachomius||348||Father of Christian cenobitic monasticism|
|Pacian of Barcelona||391||combated Novatianism|
|Palladius of Helenopolis||5th century|
|Pamphilus of Caesarea||309|
|Pantamus||214||first to make the Catechetical school of Alexandria famous|
|Papias||155||disciple of John the Evangelist and Ariston|
|Paulinus of Nola||431|
|Peter Chrysologus||450||Doctor of the Church|
|Pope Peter of Alexandria||311|
|Philip the priest||commented on the Book of Job|
|Philoxenus of Hierapolis||6th century||author of 13 ascetic discourses who combated Nestorianism, Manichaeism, and Marcionism|
|Poemen||450||commented on the Psalms|
|Proclus of Constantinople||440s|
|Prosper of Aquitaine||455|
|Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite||6th century||author of The Divine Names, The Mystical Theology, The Celestial Hierarchy, The Ecclesiastical Hierarchy, and the non-extant Theological Outlines; quoted extensively in the Summa Theologica of Thomas Aquinas|
|Quadratus of Athens||129||wrote a non-extant apology to Emperor Hadrian|
|Rabbula||435||ascetic and energetic bishop of Edessa and ally of Cyril of Alexandria who opposed the heretical teachings of Nestorius|
|Romanos the Melodist||556|
|Sahdona||649||commented on the Psalms|
|Salvian||490s||Gallic author of On the government of God|
|Severian of Gabala||408||commented on Genesis and the First and Second Epistle to the Corinthians|
|Severus of Antioch||538|
|Sextus Julius Africanus||240|
|Socrates of Constantinople||5th century|
|Sulpicius Severus||425||disciple and biographer of Martin of Tours and author of an Ecclesiastical History|
|Synesius of Syrene||414|
|Tertullian||222||died a Montanist|
|Theodore of Mopsuestia||428||commented on Acts of the Apostles and the First and Second Epistle to the Corinthians|
|Theodoret of Cyrus||457||continuator of Eusebius of Caesarea|
|Theodotus of Ancyra||4th century|
|Theophilus of Antioch||180s||first writer known to have used the term Trinity to describe the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit|
|Tichonius||390||commented on the Apocalypse; his seven principles of interpretation from his Book of Rules inspired Augustine of Hippo |
|Tyrannius Rufinus||410||friend of Jerome and continuator of Eusebius of Caesarea who commented on the Psalms|
|Valerian of Cimiez||460||commented on the Psalms|
|Venantius Fortunatus||7th century||wrote a poem on Easter|
|Victor of Antioch||commented on the Gospel of Mark|
|Victorinus of Pettau||303||author of On the Creation of the World and a Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John|
|Vincent of Lérins||450|
|Zeno of Verona||371|
|Pope Zephyrinus||217||commented on the Psalms|
After John of Damascus[
|Church Father||Date of death||Notes|
|Athanasius the Athonite||1000|
|Gregory Palamas||1359||Pillar of Orthodoxy and defender of Hesychasm|
|Ishodad of Merv||9th century||commented on the Book of Job|
|Innocent of Alaska||1879||his The Way Into the Kingdom of Heaven is often used as an Orthodox catechism|
|Mark of Ephesus||1444||Pillar of Orthodoxy|
|Photius the Great||893||Pillar of Orthodoxy and author of Bibliotheca|
|Symeon Metaphrastes||10th century|
|Symeon the New Theologian||1022||one of three Orthodox saints honored with the title "The Theologian"|
|Theodore the Studite||826|
|Theophan the Recluse||1894|
Notes and references (Wikipedia)
- Chapman, John (1909), Fathers of the Church I, New York: Robert Appleton Company, retrieved 2008-01-29
- Steenberg, M.C. (2008), The Patristics Master List, Page 1 (A-I), retrieved 2008-01-29
- Pearse, Roger (2007), Early Church Fathers: Additional Texts, retrieved 2008-01-29
- Weinrich, William C. (2005), Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture: New Testament, VIII: Revelation
- Wesselschmidt, Quentin F. (2007), Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture: Old Testament, VIII: Psalms 51-150
- Sheridan, Mark (2002), Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture: Old Testament, II: Genesis 12-50
- Arendzen, J.P. (1910), Isaac of Nineveh VIII, New York: Robert Appleton Company, retrieved 2008-01-31
- Steenberg, M.C. (2008), The Patristics Master List, Page 2 (J-P), retrieved 2008-01-29
- Steenberg, M.C. (2008), The Patristics Master List, Page 3 (Q-Z), retrieved 2008-01-29
- Azkoul, Dr. Fr. Michael, Who Is A Church Father?, archived from the original on 2009-10-26, retrieved 2008-01-30
Here are some quotes of the early Fathers:
"See that ye all follow the bishop, even as Christ Jesus does the Father, and the presbytery as ye would the apostles. Do ye also reverence the deacons, as those that carry out the appointment of God. Let no man do anything connected with the Church without the bishop. Let that be deemed a proper Eucharist, which is [administered] either by the bishop, or by one to whom he has entrusted it. Wherever the bishop shall appear, there let the multitude also be; even as, wherever Jesus Christ is, there is the Catholic Church." Ignatius of Antioch, Epistle to the Smyrneans, 8:2 (c. A.D. 110).
"[A]ll the people wondered that there should be such a difference between the unbelievers and the elect, of whom this most admirable Polycarp was one, having in our own times been an apostolic and prophetic teacher, and bishop of the Catholic Church which is in Smyrna. For every word that went out of his mouth either has been or shall yet be accomplished." Martyrdom of Polycarp, 16:2 (A.D. 155).
“…to be in honour however with the Catholic Church for the ordering of ecclesiastical discipline...one to the Laodicenes, another to the Alexandrians, both forged in Paul's name to suit the heresy of Marcion, and several others, which cannot be received into the Catholic Church; for it is not fitting that gall be mixed with honey. The Epistle of Jude no doubt, and the couple bearing the name of John, are accepted by the Catholic Church...But of Arsinous, called also Valentinus, or of Militiades we receive nothing at all.” The fragment of Muratori (A.D. 177).
"[N]or does it consist in this, that he should again falsely imagine, as being above this [fancied being], a Pleroma at one time supposed to contain thirty, and at another time an innumerable tribe of Aeons, as these teachers who are destitute of truly divine wisdom maintain; while the Catholic Church possesses one and the same faith throughout the whole world, as we have already said." Irenaeus, Against Heresies, 1:10,3 (A.D. 180).
“For it is evident that those men lived not so long ago,--in the reign of Antoninus for the most part,--and that they at first were believers in the doctrine of the Catholic Church, in the church of Rome under the episcopate of the blessed Eleutherus, until on account of their ever restless curiosity, with which they even infected the brethren, they were more than once expelled.” Tertullian, On the Prescription Against Heretics, 22,30 (A.D. 200).
”Whence you ought to know that the bishop is in the Church, and the Church in the bishop; and if any one be not with the bishop, that he is not in the Church, and that those flatter themselves in vain who creep in, not having peace with God's priests, and think that they communicate secretly with some; while the Church, which is Catholic and one, is not cut nor divided, but is indeed connected and bound together by the cement of priests who cohere with one another.” Cyprian, To Florentius, Epistle 66/67 (A.D. 254).
“But for those who say, There was when He was not, and, Before being born He was not, and that He came into existence out of nothing, or who assert that the Son of God is of a different hypostasis or substance...these the Catholic and apostolic Church anathematizes.” Creed of Nicea (A.D. 325).
"Concerning those who call themselves Cathari, if they come over to the Catholic and Apostolic Church, the great and holy Synod decrees that they who are ordained shall continue as they are in the clergy. But it is before all things necessary that they should profess in writing that they will observe and follow the dogmas of the Catholic and Apostolic Church; in particular that they will communicate with persons who have been twice married, and with those who having lapsed in persecution have had a period [of penance] laid upon them, and a time [of restoration] fixed so that in all things they will follow the dogmas of the Catholic Church..." Council of Nicaea I (A.D. 325).
“Concerning this Holy Catholic Church Paul writes to Timothy, 'That thou mayest know haw thou oughtest to behave thyself in the House of God, which is the Church of the Living God, the pillar and ground of the truth'” Cyril of Jerusalem, Catechetical Lectures,18:25(A.D. 350).
"[T]he Article, In one Holy Catholic Church,' on which, though one might say many things, we will speak but briefly. It is called Catholic then because it extends over all the world, from one end of the earth to the other; and because it teaches universally and completely one and all the doctrines which ought to come to men's knowledge, concerning things both visible and invisible, heavenly and earthly… for this cause the Faith has securely delivered to thee now the Article, And in one Holy Catholic Church;' that thou mayest avoid their wretched meetings, and ever abide with the Holy Church Catholic in which thou wast regenerated. And if ever thou art sojourning in cities, inquire not simply where the Lord's House is (for the other sects of the profane also attempt to call their own dens houses of the Lord), nor merely where the Church is, but where is the Catholic Church. For this is the peculiar name of this Holy Church, the mother of us all, which is the spouse of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Only-begotten Son of God.” Cyril of Jerusalem, Catechetical Lectures, 18:23,26 (A.D. 350).
"I believe in the Holy Spirit, the holy Catholic Church, the communion of saints, the remission of sins, the resurrection of the flesh, and eternal life. Amen." Apostles Creed (A.D. 360).
"And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the life-giver, Who proceeds from the Father, Who with the Father and the Son is together worshiped and together glorified, Who spoke through the prophets; in one holy Catholic, and apostolic Church." Constantinopolitan Creed (A.D. 381).
"Those who from heresy turn to orthodoxy, and to the portion of those who are being saved, we receive according to the following method and custom: Arians, and Macedonians, and Sabbatians, and Novatians, who call themselves Cathari or Aristori, and Quarto-decimans or Tetradites, and Apollinarians, we receive, upon their giving a written renunciation [of their errors] and anathematize every heresy which is not in accordance with the Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church of God." Council of Constantinople I, Canon 7 (A.D. 381).
“We must hold to the Christian religion and to communication in her Church, which is Catholic and which is called Catholic not only by her own members but even by all her enemies. For when heretics or the adherents of schisms talk about her, not among themselves but with strangers, willy-nilly they call her nothing else but Catholic. For they will not be understood unless they distinguish her by this name which the whole world employs in her regard.” Augustine, The True Religion, 7:12 (A.D. 390).
“Inasmuch, I repeat, as this is the case, I believe also in the Holy Church, [intending thereby] assuredly the Catholic. For both heretics and schismatics style their congregations churches. But heretics, in holding false opinions regarding God, do injury to the faith itself; while schismatics, on the other hand, in wicked separations break off from brotherly charity, although they may believe just what I believe. Wherefore neither do the heretics belong to the Church catholic, which loves God; nor do the schismatics form a part of the same.” Augustine, On Faith and Creed, 10:21 (A.D. 393).
"For in the Catholic Church, not to speak of the purest wisdom, to the knowledge of which a few spiritual, men attain in this life…--not to speak of this wisdom, which you do not believe to be in the Catholic Church, there are many other things which most justly keep me in her bosom. The consent of peoples and nations…so does her authority…the succession of priests…[a]nd so, lastly, does the name itself of Catholic, which, not without reason, amid so many heresies, the Church has thus retained; so that, though all heretics wish to be called Catholics, yet when a stranger asks where the Catholic Church meets, no heretic will venture to point to his own chapel or house. Such then in number and importance are the precious ties belonging to the Christian name which keep a believer in the Catholic Church…Now if the truth is so clearly proved as to leave no possibility of doubt, it must be set before all the things that keep me in the Catholic Church…For my part, I should not believe the gospel except as moved by the authority of the Catholic Church…for it was through the Catholics that I got my faith in it; and so, whatever you bring from the gospel will no longer have any weight with me. Wherefore, if no clear proof of the apostleship of Manichaeus is found in the gospel, I will believe the Catholics rather than you." Augustine, Against the Epistle of Manichaeus, 4:5,5:6 (A.D 397).
"You think that you make a very acute remark when you affirm the name Catholic to mean universal, not in respect to the communion as embracing the whole world, but in respect to the observance of all Divine precepts and of all the sacraments, as if we (even accepting the position that the Church is called Catholic because it honestly holds the whole truth, of which fragments here and there are found in some heresies) rested upon the testimony of this word's signification, and not upon the promises of God, and so many indisputable testimonies of the truth itself, our demonstration of the existence of the Church of God in all nations." Augustine, To Vincent the Rogatist, 93:7,23 (A.D. 403).
"Philip the presbyter and legate of the Apostolic See said: There is no doubt, and in fact it has been known in all ages, that the holy and most blessed Peter, prince and head of the Apostles, pillar of the faith, and foundation of the Catholic Church, received the keys of the kingdom from our Lord Jesus Christ, the Saviour and Redeemer of the human race, and that to him was given the power of loosing and binding sins: who down even to to-day and forever both lives and judges in his successors." Council of Ephesus, Session III (A.D. 431).
"I have often then inquired earnestly and attentively of very many men eminent for sanctity and learning, how and by what sure and so to speak universal rule I may be able to distinguish the truth of Catholic faith from the falsehood of heretical depravity; and I have always, and in almost every instance, received an answer to this effect: That whether I or anyone else should wish to detect the frauds and avoid the snares of heretics as they arise, and to continue sound and complete in the Catholic faith, we must, the Lord helping, fortify our own belief in two ways; first, by the authority of the Divine Law, and then, by the Tradition of the Catholic Church…Therefore, it is very necessary, on account of so great intricacies of such various error, that the rule for the right understanding of the prophets and apostles should be framed in accordance with the standard of Ecclesiastical and Catholic interpretation" Vincent of Lerins, Commonitory for the Antiquity and Universality of the Catholic Faith, 2:4,5 (A.D. 434).
"Wherefore the most holy and blessed Leo, archbishop of the great and elder Rome, through us, and through this present most holy synod together with the thrice blessed and all-glorious Peter the Apostle, who is the rock and foundation of the Catholic Church, and the foundation of the orthodox faith, hath stripped him of the episcopate, and hath alienated from him all hieratic worthiness. Therefore let this most holy and great synod sentence the before mentioned Dioscorus to the canonical penalties." Council of Chalcedon, Session III (A.D. 451).
To read the Early Church Fathers go here (opens to a new window)